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G20机制20年:演进、困境与中国应对

????本文来自微信公众号:一带一路百人论坛(ID:obor100),作者:王文、王鹏,标题图来自视觉中国,
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,二十国集团(G20)2019年6月28至29日将在日本大阪举行第14次首脑峰会。自1999年正式成立以来,G20机制已经走过20年。从早期的部长级会议(财长和央行行长会议机制)到2008年以后的峰会,其层级不断提高、影响力稳步扩大,业已取代七国集团(G7)成为“全球经济治理的首要平台”。中国则在这一“历史转折中发挥了独特的重要作用”。作为国际社会应对2008年全球经济危机的制度性产物,G20峰会机制为全球经济金融的发展与改革提供了新的动力。然而,在G20机制固有缺陷、当前全球经济低迷、贸易保护主义泛滥、民粹主义盛行等因素的共同作用下,机制本身以及包括中国在内的全球治理主体都面临新挑战。,?,鉴此,本文在文献研究以及近两年来对美国、欧盟、日本、印度、印尼、土耳其、澳大利亚等G20国家以及伊朗、巴基斯坦等非G20重要国家进行密集调研的基础上,首先分阶段回溯G20机制成立20年来所取得的成就,重点评估2008年G20升级为峰会后的机制化建设与演进逻辑,然后研讨近两年来G20机制所遭遇的最新困境,重点考察杭州共识的国际接受度与所面临的最新挑战,最后就如何延续“杭州共识”,并进一步优化G20架构、推进全球治理改革提出新的中国思路。,
,,一、G20机制20年:治理成果与演进逻辑,
,促成二十国集团(G20)机制产生的机缘是两场冲击全球的金融危机。1997年的亚洲金融危机使“富国俱乐部”认识到“既有G7/G8及更早的国际货币基金组织(IMF)已无力为新的全球化时代提供金融稳定;同时,需要建立既包括现有强国又包括新兴经济体的更广泛和更长期的集团来提供这一全球公共产品”,于是建立了G20财长及央行行长会议机制以共同应对。而十年后的2007年美国次贷危机则使G7自身沦为金融危机的发源地与重灾区。为尽快恢复本国经济以摆脱危机,发达国家不得不借助新兴经济体的资源和支持,因而促成了G20从部长级会议升级为领导人峰会机制,并由此逐步取代G7/G8峰会在讨论国际经济金融事务中所发挥的核心作用。下文将分阶段考察G20作为全球治理平台的演进逻辑,评估各阶段成果。,?,(一)部长级会议时期,1999年9月至2008年10月,在柏林、蒙特利尔、渥太华、新德里、莫雷利亚、柏林、北京、墨尔本、开普敦,共举行了9次G20部长级会议。G20机制于1999年12月16日在德国柏林成立,由原八国集团(G8)以及包括欧盟在内的另外12个重要经济体组成,形式为非正式财长和央行行长会议,宗旨为在布雷顿森林体系框架内提供一个非正式对话的新机制,以扩大在具有系统重要性的经济体之间就经济、金融核心议题进行讨论并合作,以取得惠及所有人的稳定、可持续的世界经济增长。G20机制最终成员名单主要考虑了成员国在世界经济中的地位和影响力,以及作为一个会议协调机制的最大容量。这使得G20在代表性以及由此所产生的“国际合法性”(International Legitimacy)上较G7/G8都有了大幅提升。,?,正如有学者所批判的,G20在该阶段仍局限于扮演G7“外围组织”的角色。会议本身即明确规定,G20的创设只是在布雷顿森林体系框架内部提供新的非正式对话机制;它只是IMF和世界银行框架内的一种机制。它所发布的联合公报也多为长期问题,且并不对实施这些目标所需要推进的具体步骤进行严格规定。以上种种特质共同导致了在成立最初的10年中,G20在国际社会所受关注较为有限,一直笼罩在G7/G8的光环之下,因而也无法在全球经济治理中发挥任何主导性作用。,?,(二)危机应对时期,2008年11月~2010年6月,在华盛顿、伦敦、匹兹堡,共举行了三届G20峰会。2008年G20举行首次全球经济治理峰会,“面临的首要挑战是共同应对金融危机”。而金融危机对各成员国所造成的巨大共同威胁,也迫使各成员国产生更强烈的动机求同存异,弥合彼此间的认知差异与主张分歧,因而大幅提升了机制的有效性。效用的提升反过来又吸引更多国际关注与支持,从而加强了该机制的国际代表性与合法性。,?,2008年11月14日至15日,20个国家元首齐聚美国华盛顿,一致决心加强合作,共同努力恢复全球增长,实现世界金融体系必要改革。此后,G20告别了上一阶段作为松散、非正式国际组织的状态,转而开始在协调各国政策、应对金融危机方面发挥实质性作用。2009年,G20确定在2011年之后将升级为年度性、制度化的论坛,专注于探讨全球经济议题。作为一个多层次的全球论坛,G20的会议在该阶段已逐步发展、细分为内部与外围两个相互关联的体系。内部机制的细化以及外围配套机制的逐步完善被认为是G20机制成熟化、规范化的重要特征。,?,(三)预防机制转型时期,2010年11月至2015年11月,在多伦多、首尔、戛纳、洛斯卡沃斯、圣彼得堡、布里斯班、安塔利亚,共举行了七届G20峰会。在危机应对期之后,随着G20治理效用的逐步显现,世界经济开始恢复、发展,应对危机的紧迫性随之下降,大国/主要经济体间的差异和矛盾重新凸显。与此同时,表现出较强治理能力与潜力的G20机制则相应地从“应激性”“救急性”向预防性常规机制转型。成员国以及国际社会希望G20在完成逐步治愈全球危机创伤的基础上,进一步为未来全球性经济危机的预防工作做出新的机制性贡献。该阶段G20在国内政治治理、审议结果、方向确立、决策和承诺、承诺落实、全球治理制度建设等领域不断形塑共通理念,强化国际社会的凝聚力,并逐步打造出一个有更强代表性、认可度和高效性的全球治理网络。圣彼得堡峰会后,G20的议题和目标也变得更加广泛,除了关注中长期全球经济增长的质量外,也加入了气候变化、反腐败、就业、联合国千年发展目标等新议题。,?,(四)“新全球化”时期,2016年9月至今,在杭州、汉堡、布宜诺斯艾利斯、大阪,共举行了四届G20峰会。在危机应对期与之后的预防转型期,以中国为代表的发展中国家,凭借较有效的经济刺激政策以及对国际社会“公益”的切实维护,已经逐步超越美欧传统发达经济体,而成为拉动世界经济复苏、增长的主要引擎。而中国等新兴经济体对大宗商品的巨大需求,也带动世界经济快速增长。这些不仅导致了世界经济力量对比与国际格局的变化,而且使国际社会对中国等新兴经济体进一步改革G20机制充满期许。,?,这些期许集中体现在2016年杭州峰会的共识上。在贸易领域,各国达成《G20全球贸易增长战略》,共同声明反对贸易保护主义,推动尽快实施世贸组织《贸易便利化协定》;在投资领域达成了《G20全球投资指导原则》;在金融领域达成《迈向更稳定、更有韧性的国际金融架构的G20议程》;在发展领域,各国就推动包容与联动式发展、推动落实《2030可持续发展议程》达成共识;在创新领域,峰会首次将“创新增长”纳入G20核心议题,并就“G20创新增长蓝图”达成共识;在结构改革方面,杭州峰会完成了G20结构性改革的顶层设计;确定了结构性改革的九大优先领域和四十八条指导原则,制定了衡量改革进展和成效的指标体系。,?,尤其难能可贵的是,在中国的推动下,G20机制不仅致力于推动全球发展事业的前进,更自觉将自身议程与《联合国可持续发展目标》(SDG2030)对接,以推动全球包容、联动式发展,使经济增长更加公平公正地同时普惠发达国家和欠发达国家。G20机制不仅首次将发展问题置于全球宏观政策框架的突出位置,而且也首次就落实SDG2030制定出有一定可操作性的集体行动计划。对此,国际社会普遍认为,G20推动落实SDG2030是一项“双赢”的选择:一方面,落实SDG2030不仅可以为G20整合其发展议程提供难得的契机,而且有助于推动G20成功转型为全球经济治理的长期性平台;另一方面,G20杭州峰会在推动国际社会落实SDG2030上迈出了关键的第一步,对推动愿景的全面实现具有开创和引领意义。,?,面对西方所推动的“旧”全球化缺乏动力和国际合法性的困局,日益走近国际舞台中心的中国在中共十八大以后提出了一系列有关全球治理的新方案、新思路。正如习近平主席指出,所谓“新全球化”的目的就是构建人类命运共同体,也就是建设一个持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界。对G20机制而言,在历经危机应对期、危机预防转型期之后,以杭州峰会的召开为标志,转向推动世界经济的“新全球化”,即“让经济全球化进程更有活力、更加包容、更可持续”。而在这一历史进程中,中国“要主动作为、适度管理,让经济全球化的正面效应更多释放出来,实现经济全球化进程再平衡”;“要顺应大势、结合国情,正确选择融入经济全球化的路径和节奏;要讲求效率、注重公平,让不同国家、不同阶层、不同人群共享经济全球化的好处。”,
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,二、G20机制面临的困境,
,在G20峰会机制发展的早期阶段,围绕它在全球治理模式和成效的批评可被归纳为“多余论、拒绝论、强化论、替代论、衰退论”五大类。近年来,随着反/逆全球化、民粹主义、孤立主义、贸易保护主义等思潮的兴起,以及大国间结构性矛盾的上升,全球治理面临新困境,G20机制也同样面临新挑战。,?,(一)G20机制自身性质和组织形式存在固有缺陷。,
,G20内部存在三个组合:一是G7,就世界经济和金融面临的主要问题在发达国家内进行协调;二是金砖国家组织,在G20期间也将就重大国际议题协调立场;三是中等国家或者中等强国组成的称之为“MITKA”的集团,成员包括墨西哥、印尼、土耳其、韩国和澳大利亚。它们游离于前两者之间,希望“抱团取暖”、加大发言权。因此,G20具有先天的临时性、非正式性和不稳定性,譬如三个集团间权力不均衡、缺乏凝聚力、合力不足等。这些特性又共同导致了G20的低效性,如议程的泛化等。峰会本身作为一个松散的国际论坛,其能否形成合议、公报本身依赖于出席该次峰会的首脑们能否达成共识;不仅效率不高,而且每年的公报内容也因为参与方数量较多而较为庞杂。此外,即便达成共识并发表公报,也不能对签署国未来的行为构成任何实质性约束。峰会创始初期,目标明确,就是为了应对2008年经济危机,且各国政策储备手段也相对充足。而11年后的今天,各国能够使用的政策抓手已经用尽,其效果还在逐年递减;而刺激经济发展和协调各国立场的新手段尚未成熟。,?,(二)?全球治理新形势给G20机制带来新挑战。,
,一是低速增长的新常态。全球经济发展总体趋势为低速增长,新的危机和风险却在上升。英国《经济学家》杂志专门创造了一个新词“慢全球化”(Slowbalisation),以概括当前及未来全球经济与全球化的基本特征与趋势。?布鲁金斯学会与英国《金融时报》的数据显示,自2018年秋季以来,发达经济体及新兴经济体的情绪指标和经济数据都在持续恶化,全球经济已进入“同步放缓”阶段,且2019年也难见逆转。二是争夺存量的新博弈。在全球经济增长趋缓的背景下,各国都倾向于加紧“多分蛋糕”,而不是想办法“做大蛋糕”。各国都试图从现有的经济增长中攫取更多份额,而非通过加强合作等手段促进全球经济的全面复苏与可持续增长。包括世界第一经济体美国、本届峰会东道国日本在内,发达国家大多谋求通过修改全球经济治理的游戏规则,以便从现有的经济存量中进行利益再分配,占有更大份额。三是科技外溢的新效应。科技革命尽管有力提升了全球生产力,但由此在收入分配方面造成的新鸿沟未能有效弥合,于是在发达国家产生新的国内矛盾,并向国际社会外溢。四是世界秩序的新乱象。在国际层面,英国脱欧对欧洲乃至全球经济和金融体系都产生了远超此前预估的巨大冲击;乌克兰与俄罗斯在刻赤海峡的对峙激化乌俄、俄欧、俄美、俄—北约矛盾;面对更加动荡的中东局势,美既插手中东事务又不想陷入泥潭的模棱两可态势使中东乱象加深,难民危机、伊朗核危机、巴以冲突等问题的解决前景更加黯淡。在国家层面,右翼政党执政在不少欧洲国家特别是东欧国家已然成风;而在欧洲的核心地带,起源于法国的“黄背心”运动正延续和放大欧洲各国的排外和孤立主义现象,并向欧洲其他国家、世界其他地区蔓延;由难民、移民问题所引起的矛盾和冲突此起彼伏;防不胜防的“独狼”式袭击正利用最新科技给无辜平民造成巨大杀伤。,?,(三)?西方发达国家对G20机制的重视度大幅降低。,?,欧盟内部的分裂使其仅关注与自身有关的议题,而忽略全球治理。日本则希望借2019年大阪峰会为2025年大阪博览会预热、铺陈,遂提出“社会5.0”概念。博览会主题是“构建未来社会,想象明日生活”。显然,日本在议题设定上旨在把峰会的主题引入国内公共事务管理,而非G20职分所在的全球治理领域。与此同时,特朗普政府对全球治理、G20峰会的认知、立场和行为都产生了质变。在峰会初创时期,美国总体上仍奉行国际主义,强调双边及多边合作。但近两年来,特朗普政府调整美国对外总体战略,奉行“国家主义”,强调“美国也是民族国家(nation state)”,其国内甚至出现了“抛弃G20”的声音。G20初创时期,美国尚能放下身段,为寻求合作而适度让权、放权;但现在随着美国经济的复苏,特朗普政府正谋求从多边国际组织中“强行收权”;如不答应,则以“退群”回应。美国保守主义势力在国内事务中历来主张“小政府、大社会”。特朗普政府正使该偏好加速外溢到国际社会和全球治理中,因而削弱、制约了G20这类依赖各国政府通力合作的全球治理平台的影响与效用。2019年年初,特朗普政府在有关美国经济事务的多次表态中,点明了三个国际经贸组织作为其制定经济政策的参考重点,包括世贸组织(WTO)、经济合作与发展组织(OECD)和亚太经合组织(APEC),但没有G20,进一步说明G20机制不受特朗普政府的重视。,?,(四)?中美战略竞争使G20沦为大国博弈“角斗场”的风险增大。,?,自2018年上半年以来,受中美两国贸易摩擦加剧的负面冲击,G20在沦为“清谈馆”的同时,又平添了沦为大国角力之战场的风险。2018年,中美两国在另一重要跨区域多边主义平台APEC峰会上的拉锯战,以及由此导致的大会共同宣言流产,给当年的G20峰会敲响了警钟。也正是鉴于对大国拉锯战对多边协调平台巨大损伤的防范与规避,在APEC峰会后不久召开的阿根廷G20峰会上,中美两国以及国际社会都做出了一定努力,避免同类事故的再次发生。然而即便如此,在阿根廷峰会上所暴露出来的中美矛盾与分歧,依然成为会内会外的舆论焦点。从国际媒体的报道量来看,全球对中美关系的关注远远超过了对峰会本身议程的关注,且认为阿根廷G20峰会“已经变成了中美战略与经济摩擦的协调平台”。在经贸摩擦之外,美国在台海、南海的行动,以及特朗普政府出台的“印太”地缘战略也对中美关系的稳定性造成冲击,从而增加了两国在G20等多边框架内的竞争强度。,
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,三、“中国方案”面临的挑战
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,如前文所回顾,以2016年杭州峰会的召开为标志,在中国等发展中国家的共同推动下,G20机制作为全球经济治理的重要平台,正朝着推动“新全球化”的目标迈进,并取得一定成果。然而,在最近三年的全球治理实践中,“杭州共识”在加强各国政策协调、创新增长方式、改革经济金融治理机构、促进贸易和投资便利化、推动包容和联动式发展等领域的努力也遭到了一定阻力,面临风险和挑战。,?,(一)西方发达国家加大联合制华力度。,
,作为西方政治经济架构的自然产物,“全球治理”本质上可被理解为某种“朋友圈”。其中,英语国家(美、英、加、澳、新所谓“五眼”同盟)、法德等西欧大国以及日本仍居于核心位置。它们在国家层面通过一系列同盟关系相互绑定,同时在次国家层面,甚至在家族、个人层面上具有上百年的实践和交往网络,自然形成一个较为封闭的小圈子,彼此在情报、资源、理念、政策上存在一定的共识与共享。它们之间存在矛盾,但面对“外来者”时则往往表现出高度的一致性,试图共同“驯服”“规制”作为全球治理“新来者”的中国。全球治理本质上乃“全球公器”,应该为全人类的共同命运和福祉服务。但当前在西方强国的霸权阴影下,作为国际社会最重要“公共产品”的全球治理仍在相当程度上被某些小圈子、小集团“公器私用”。因此,中国仍需时间以积累全球治理经验。,?,西方在全球治理各领域中的经验、资源和手段仍强于中国。一个必须承认的事实是,G7仍将在G20框架内发挥主导作用。G7通常先行开会,讨论对重大问题的共同立场,然后在G20峰会上体现一致性。课题组调研表明,欧美之间的一些争执本质上并非他们彼此间的直接矛盾,而是欧洲一些官员认为,美国不应将贸易战矛头指向自己,而应欧美“联手”对付中国。可见,这种所谓的“欧美矛盾”与中方此前的设想、期望相比,存在较大距离。故此次大阪峰会以及之后的G20会议上,都不能排除美欧在G7框架下事先达成协议,而后针对中国的可能。,?,(二)?“中方案”面临被西方曲解和污名化的威胁,
,中国与西方的全球治理理念仍存在相当差异:一是在全球治理的主体上,中国比较强调联合国的作用,而美国则强调自己的联盟体系优先;二是在全球治理的议题上,中国坚持发展优先,美国坚持安全优先;三是在参与全球治理的主权国家地位上,中国强调所有国家部分大小都是平等的“全球伙伴关系”,而美国则分出等级,认为其本国及盟友的利益要优先满足;四是在全球治理的方法上,中国强调“不干涉内政”原则,而美国是要干涉内政的。还有学者从外交、经济、社会政策三个维度考察中美全球治理观的差异,认为他们在全球治理的方式、价值观以及对全球治理各类行为体的重视程度都存在较大差异;如果说美国是“带有霸权色彩的自由主义”全球治理观,则中国的价值理念可被视为“主权基础上的平等主义”。价值理念与行为方式上的巨大差异在网络空间规则制定、气候合作等重大议题中都有明显体现。而当前中美战略竞争的加剧更放大了上述差异。,?,正是由于西方在全球治理的主体、参与者关系、议题目标、具体手段等方面与中国的理解存在相当差异,目前在西方“全球治理”的研究圈子中并没有按中国本意去理解“中国方案”,甚至一些西方智库、媒体或有意或无意地把全球治理“中国方案”等同于“一党专政”“共产主义”“国有企业”等,刻意制造“中国方案”与西方传统政治理念和治理框架间“不可调和的冲突”,进而使“讲好中国全球治理故事”面临挑战。,?,近年来,西方国家屡屡在发展模式、贸易补贴、市场经济地位等领域向中国发难。在大阪峰会及此后的G20峰会上,西方媒体将大概率对中国及其发展模式展开一定程度的舆论抵制。同时,先于G20峰会召开的G7峰会也存在预先在上述议题上达成某种合谋、共识的可能。而在过去的多次峰会上与中国形成密切战略协作与互动的国家,譬如作为金砖国家之一的巴西,也可能在右翼的雅伊尔·博索纳罗总统当选后转向亲美,从而进一步削弱G20框架内支持中国方案、中国主张的声音。,?,(三)杭州峰会上所确立的若干原则面临被边缘化的风险。,
,“二十国集团的行动力与引导力,正在于持之以恒落实成果,确保各项议程的延续性。”杭州G20峰会中的多项核心内容,如重视基建、加强反腐、促进增长、互联互通、契合联合国可持续发展目标等,属于长期以来G20峰会的传统议题。中国为其延续作出巨大贡献。然而,另外一些具有鲜明中国特色的主张、理念,却正在被西方国家淡化、稀释和边缘化。譬如,在杭州峰会上所确立的“贸易部长会议机制化”“绿色金融”“发展中国家地位”“通过基础设施建设提振经济”等,已在后续的峰会中被陆续淡化或剔除。,?,以贸易与投资领域为例,国际贸易与投资规模的不断萎缩、国际贸易投资体系的不断分化,都给国际贸易投资的治理带来严峻挑战。为此,中国政府在G20杭州峰会上就推进贸易投资增长、强化G20贸易投资机制、促进发展中国家全面参与全球价值链等方面推动成员国达成共识。为使上述努力制度化、常态化,杭州峰会还通过了《G20全球投资政策指导原则》,这是国际社会首次在多边机制下就全球投资规则的制定达成共识。在全球多边投资体制缺失的情况下,《指导原则》有效地填补了国际经济治理领域的空白,在全球多边投资规制的历史上了取得重大突破。《指导原则》提出的九项原则不仅覆盖了国际投资体制的所有核心板块和要素,同时还纳入全新的国际投资规则核心要素,对现行国际投资协定体系的增量改革提供了有效的政策指引,给国际贸易投资体系发展带来了新的契机,推动国际贸易投资的国际合作进入新阶段。,?,然而,在此后的两届峰会上,上述杭州峰会共识与成果并未被东道国在大会议程中延续,相关的研讨、热度明显下降。各峰会主办方更倾向于将本国所关注的内容设为核心议程。至于对杭州共识做后续的推进和落实,则面临更大挑战。尤其需要指出的是,在杭州峰会举行时,尽管中美在全球治理目标和手段上存在一定分歧,但当时的美国奥巴马政府总体上仍然赞成国际合作,因而与中国明确反对贸易和投资保护主义的主张存在一定共识。然而近两年来,随着特朗普政府所强力推行的“美国优先”原则、贸易保护主义,中美上述共识正受到全面侵蚀。,
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,四、中国的应对
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,尽管G20面临种种挑战,但它仍然是中国积极参与、引领全球治理的重要平台。而作为负责任大国,中国不仅需要利用好这个平台为国家发展、民族复兴创造更好的国际环境,也是为国际社会,尤其是广大发展中国家提供更多的公共产品,携手构建更加公平、合理的国际新秩序,为最终建成“人类命运共同体”奠定基础。基于上文的分析,中国在现阶段可以从以下措施入手,在进一步夯实杭州共识、扞卫国家利益的同时,推动全球治理的发展与G20机制的进一步优化。,?,(一)中短期延续杭州共识、扞卫中国方案的策略思考。,
,第一,借助G20峰会促进大国协调。首先,处理好大国协调特别是中美协调,审慎处理特朗普政府“美国第一”贸易保护主义政策与中国所高举的全球化大旗间的关系,避免两个大国间对彼此的战略意图和能力产生致命误判。其次,借助参加G20峰会与东道国拉近距离,开展公共外交也是题中之义。譬如,在大阪峰会上,中国可以从不同层面夯实中日关系,促进政策沟通和民心相通,尤其是形塑日本下一代对中国的正面认知。再次,可借G20峰会夯实与新兴大国的关系,继续与它们一起寻找共同利益和共同语言,如和印度等国可以在大数据、医药、知识产权等领域就国际贸易规则公平化改革等议题达成共识。在G20框架中应注意团结发展中国家,协调立场,一齐发声。,?,第二,以G20峰会为平台占据国际道义制高点,推动国际制度和国际组织改革。中国不妨在G20峰会平台全面阐述有关WTO改革、提高政策透明度、鼓励市场竞争、扞卫公平贸易原则等中国主张,作用在于:一是占据国际社会的道义制高点;二是对外通过在一定程度上“统战”美欧国内的部分工商金融界人士来缓和与美欧间的战略矛盾;三是对内进一步借助扩大开放来加速国内改革。,?,第三,高度重视G20配套活动,以打造更加丰满、立体的国际形象。中国国家智库、高校智库、社会智库都应积极参与G20峰会的筹办、参会和后续工作,在二十国工商论坛(B20)、二十国智库论坛(T20)、二十国青年论坛(L20)、二十国妇女论坛(W20)等平台上继续发力,从而打造更加丰满、立体的中国国际形象与影响力。,?,第四,借助“一带一路”、亚投行等政策抓手落实“杭州共识”,不断扩大国际社会的接受度,并在促进“五通”的共同实践中加以打磨、完善。作为“一带一路”建设的“血脉经络”,基础设施投资计划将建设亚欧地区以海陆空交通线、油气管道、输电线路和通信网络等为构成要素的综合性立体交互网络,为沿线国家的民间文化“思想交流”奠定“物质交往”基础。而在“逆全球化”大潮下,加强世界各国基础设施建设合作,促进互联互通,本身就是“探索一种全新的开放性经济发展方式的尝试,为密切国家间经贸的往来和抵御全球化风险提供更强大的战略依托。”,?,以作为杭州峰会亮点的“绿色发展与绿色金融”“以基础设施建设促进经济社会发展”为例,可以在“一带一路”建设以及亚投行融资支持等领域加强政策倾斜与扶持。不妨借助“一带一路”的建设,向全球推广“要致富,先修路”的中国发展理念,并将生态文明融入绿色基建项目之中。,?,创新绿色金融机制不仅有助于绿色基础设施建设,而且能够引领多边开发银行参与绿色基础设施建设。因此,也不妨以亚投行为牵头单位,联合世界银行、亚洲开发银行、欧洲复兴开发银行、欧亚开发银行、伊斯兰开发银行、非洲开发银行等在“一带一路”沿线有业务交集的多边银行,建立包括基础设施投融资在内的合作关系,更好地发挥多边开发银行资金优势互补的协同效应。,?,加强中国绿色金融国际标准的制定与全球推广工作是重中之重。伴随着国际社会对于气候变化、资源保护、生态平衡等问题的日益重视,未来绿色金融业务将有更大的发展空间,全球绿色金融业务正处在同一条起跑线上。作为绿色金融服务核心的绿色标准,其内容与规范的发展也都在起步阶段。而在绿色金融标准上,较之于国际“自下而上”的自愿性标准,中国的绿色金融标准更多采用了政府引导和市场化约束相结合的方式,通过“自上而下”的指导性准则,对绿色金融从绿色产业项目界定、募集资金投向、存续期间资金管理、信息披露认证等问题进行引导和规范。因此,推动绿色金融的中国标准国际化,正面临一个重要的历史机遇,并拥有政策支持优势。,?,与此同时,在话语层面亦宜建立“一带一路”生态文明传播机制,扩大沿线国家对中国生态发展理念的认同,加强民心相通,为建成“一带一路”的最终愿景——人类命运共同体奠定基础。在上述过程中,“杭州共识”将在双边、多边的建设实践中被国际社会“内化”。,?,(二)中长期进一步优化G20架构、推进全球治理改革的策略思考。,
,从中长期看,未来5~10年将是全球治理“中国方案”全面推进、开花结果的十年。尽管仍面临空前的挑战和阻力,但中国崛起的国家实力、“中国方案”自身的价值与全球吸引力,都为中国推进更加公平、包容、可持续的全球治理提供新动力。为延续杭州峰会的成果,同时因应新的挑战,应切实推进全球治理中国方案的落实,具体可从如下方面入手。,?,第一,针对世界大国实力消长与全球治理架构的现实,确立更加符合实际的全球治理目标和战略预期;适度调整对G20的认知与心态,在全球治理中聚焦力所能及的重点领域。中国在继续利用G20平台积极参与全球治理的同时,宜把重点锚定在联合国、国际货币基金组织、WTO、APEC等多边和区域机制,且仍以双边外交和双边经贸关系为基础。,?,中国对G20自诞生之日起就自带的制度性、结构性先天缺陷,以及民族国家的自立性、自助性需有充分、全面的认识;同时也需用更长时间适应全球治理的“深水区”。当下,全球治理盘根错节,复杂异常,中国作为新手仍需关心观察、虚心学习。西方一些舆论过度宣扬“中国领导权”“中国模式主导/引导全球治理”,对此中国尤应谨慎。,?,中国尤其需对国际体系改革的漫长性、挫折性有足够的心理准备。世界银行、国际货币基金组织、世贸组织等仍由美欧主导;中美贸易摩擦的长期性也将影响国际体系的改革;美欧、美日经贸之争并不会完全使西方撕裂;国际体系未来恐将长期陷于“斗而不破”的摩擦“新常态”。因此,中国参与国际治理,将经历一个长期的“干中学”过程。,?,习近平总书记2013年1月5日在新进中央委员会的委员、候补委员学习贯彻党的十八大精神研讨班上指出:“我们要深刻认识资本主义社会的自我调节能力,充分估计到西方发达国家在经济科技军事方面长期占据优势的客观现实,认真做好两种社会制度长期合作和斗争的各方面准备。在相当长时期内,初级阶段的社会主义还必须同生产力更发达的资本主义长期合作和斗争,还必须认真学习和借鉴资本主义创造的有益文明成果,甚至必须面对被人们用西方发达国家的长处来比较我国社会主义发展中的不足并加以指责的现实。我们必须有很强大的战略定力,坚决抵制抛弃社会主义的各种错误主张,自觉纠正超越阶段的错误观念。”该文于2019年3月31日重新刊载于《求是》杂志和《人民日报》头版头条,不仅展示出中国国家领导人 对世界大局的最新观察,更体现其高瞻远瞩的战略远见与一以贯之的正确研判。而认清这一点,有助于中国进一步审慎研判包括G20在内的全球治理平台的实际价值,以及中国在其中的角色与地位,从而确立更加符合实际的全球治理目标和战略预期。,?,在重新调整对本国实力、全球治理能力与G20潜力的认知之后,中国不妨将G20作为中国展示形象与主张的外化特色与传播平台,从而更加务实、有效地使用该平台。,?,第二,借助金砖国家、上海合作组织等多边架构,加强与新兴经济体在国际经济金融治理领域的协调协作。全球日益高涨的“反全球化”浪潮源于西方国家在当前特定阶段出现的区域和周期性倒退。该浪潮已经在发达经济体中引发交叉传染式的贸易保护主义、贸易增长缓慢、移民政策收紧,从而间接导致全球化的引擎从发达经济体转向新兴经济体。因此,中国不妨借助金砖、上合等多边组织,加强与新兴经济体在国际经济与金融治理的协调与协作,共同扞卫自由贸易、开放市场的价值观,并抓住下一轮全球化将带来的机遇。,?,在国际金融领域,世界经济已经进入动荡不定的“美元退潮”期。长期来看,美元加息可能迫使西方企业债市场被迫持续去杠杆化,形成“债务悬崖”,从而因遏制创新而间接打击世界经济。除了美元自身的问题,美国政府恶意利用其美元霸权,频繁使用金融手段制裁、打压他国,也迫使更多国家从国家安全与战略的角度警惕美元。尤其是俄罗斯、伊朗等近年来饱受美国金融制裁之苦的国家正谋求加强国际金融合作,希望通过强化在国际支付与清算领域的协调来破除制裁,从而扞卫本国金融经济主权。,?,由上述诸多因素所引发的“去美元化”(DeDollarization)趋势也在客观上为人民币国际化、中国加强与新兴市场经济体金融货币协作提供了一定的有利的外在条件。为了逐步发展起自己的供应链和价值链系统,中国也不妨在国际货币结算清算系统中加强与俄罗斯、欧盟等的协作,适度、逐步递减对美元的过度依赖,从而加强中国的货币—经济主权,并推动全球经济金融治理朝着更加公平、正义的方向发展。,
,(本文转自:《现代国际关系》2019年第5期),
,本文来自微信公众号:一带一路百人论坛(ID:obor100),作者:王文、王鹏,标题图来自视觉中国

ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: yi dai yi lu bai ren lun tan ID: obor100, zuo zhe: wang wen wang peng, biao ti tu lai zi shi jue zhong guo,, yin zi:,,, er shi guo ji tuan G20 2019 nian 6 yue 28 zhi 29 ri jiang zai ri ben da ban ju xing di 14 ci shou nao feng hui. zi 1999 nian zheng shi cheng li yi lai, G20 ji zhi yi jing zou guo 20 nian. cong zao qi de bu zhang ji hui yi cai zhang he yang hang hang zhang hui yi ji zhi dao 2008 nian yi hou de feng hui, qi ceng ji bu duan ti gao ying xiang li wen bu kuo da, ye yi qu dai qi guo ji tuan G7 cheng wei" quan qiu jing ji zhi li de shou yao ping tai". zhong guo ze zai zhe yi" li shi zhuan zhe zhong fa hui le du te de zhong yao zuo yong". zuo wei guo ji she hui ying dui 2008 nian quan qiu jing ji wei ji de zhi du xing chan wu, G20 feng hui ji zhi wei quan qiu jing ji jin rong de fa zhan yu gai ge ti gong le xin de dong li. ran er, zai G20 ji zhi gu you que xian dang qian quan qiu jing ji di mi mao yi bao hu zhu yi fan lan min cui zhu yi sheng xing deng yin su de gong tong zuo yong xia, ji zhi ben shen yi ji bao kuo zhong guo zai nei de quan qiu zhi li zhu ti dou mian lin xin tiao zhan.,, jian ci, ben wen zai wen xian yan jiu yi ji jin liang nian lai dui mei guo ou meng ri ben yin du yin ni tu er qi ao da li ya deng G20 guo jia yi ji yi lang ba ji si tan deng fei G20 zhong yao guo jia jin xing mi ji diao yan de ji chu shang, shou xian fen jie duan hui su G20 ji zhi cheng li 20 nian lai suo qu de de cheng jiu, zhong dian ping gu 2008 nian G20 sheng ji wei feng hui hou de ji zhi hua jian she yu yan jin luo ji, ran hou yan tao jin liang nian lai G20 ji zhi suo zao yu de zui xin kun jing, zhong dian kao cha hang zhou gong shi de guo ji jie shou du yu suo mian lin de zui xin tiao zhan, zui hou jiu ru he yan xu" hang zhou gong shi", bing jin yi bu you hua G20 jia gou tui jin quan qiu zhi li gai ge ti chu xin de zhong guo si lu.,,, yi G20 ji zhi 20 nian: zhi li cheng guo yu yan jin luo ji,, cu cheng er shi guo ji tuan G20 ji zhi chan sheng de ji yuan shi liang chang chong ji quan qiu de jin rong wei ji. 1997 nian de ya zhou jin rong wei ji shi" fu guo ju le bu" ren shi dao" ji you G7 G8 ji geng zao de guo ji huo bi ji jin zu zhi IMF yi wu li wei xin de quan qiu hua shi dai ti gong jin rong wen ding tong shi, xu yao jian li ji bao kuo xian you qiang guo you bao kuo xin xing jing ji ti de geng guang fan he geng chang qi de ji tuan lai ti gong zhe yi quan qiu gong gong chan pin", yu shi jian li le G20 cai zhang ji yang hang hang zhang hui yi ji zhi yi gong tong ying dui. er shi nian hou de 2007 nian mei guo ci dai wei ji ze shi G7 zi shen lun wei jin rong wei ji de fa yuan di yu zhong zai qu. wei jin kuai hui fu ben guo jing ji yi bai tuo wei ji, fa da guo jia bu de bu jie zhu xin xing jing ji ti de zi yuan he zhi chi, yin er cu cheng le G20 cong bu zhang ji hui yi sheng ji wei ling dao ren feng hui ji zhi, bing you ci zhu bu qu dai G7 G8 feng hui zai tao lun guo ji jing ji jin rong shi wu zhong suo fa hui de he xin zuo yong. xia wen jiang fen jie duan kao cha G20 zuo wei quan qiu zhi li ping tai de yan jin luo ji, ping gu ge jie duan cheng guo.,, yi bu zhang ji hui yi shi qi, 1999 nian 9 yue zhi 2008 nian 10 yue, zai bo lin meng te li er wo tai hua xin de li mo lei li ya bo lin bei jing mo er ben kai pu dun, gong ju xing le 9 ci G20 bu zhang ji hui yi. G20 ji zhi yu 1999 nian 12 yue 16 ri zai de guo bo lin cheng li, you yuan ba guo ji tuan G8 yi ji bao kuo ou meng zai nei de ling wai 12 ge zhong yao jing ji ti zu cheng, xing shi wei fei zheng shi cai zhang he yang hang hang zhang hui yi, zong zhi wei zai bu lei dun sen lin ti xi kuang jia nei ti gong yi ge fei zheng shi dui hua de xin ji zhi, yi kuo da zai ju you xi tong zhong yao xing de jing ji ti zhi jian jiu jing ji jin rong he xin yi ti jin xing tao lun bing he zuo, yi qu de hui ji suo you ren de wen ding ke chi xu de shi jie jing ji zeng zhang. G20 ji zhi zui zhong cheng yuan ming dan zhu yao kao lv le cheng yuan guo zai shi jie jing ji zhong de di wei he ying xiang li, yi ji zuo wei yi ge hui yi xie tiao ji zhi de zui da rong liang. zhe shi de G20 zai dai biao xing yi ji you ci suo chan sheng de" guo ji he fa xing" International Legitimacy shang jiao G7 G8 dou you le da fu ti sheng.,, zheng ru you xue zhe suo pi pan de, G20 zai gai jie duan reng ju xian yu ban yan G7" wai wei zu zhi" de jue se. hui yi ben shen ji ming que gui ding, G20 de chuang she zhi shi zai bu lei dun sen lin ti xi kuang jia nei bu ti gong xin de fei zheng shi dui hua ji zhi ta zhi shi IMF he shi jie yin hang kuang jia nei de yi zhong ji zhi. ta suo fa bu de lian he gong bao ye duo wei chang qi wen ti, qie bing bu dui shi shi zhei xie mu biao suo xu yao tui jin de ju ti bu zhou jin xing yan ge gui ding. yi shang zhong zhong te zhi gong tong dao zhi le zai cheng li zui chu de 10 nian zhong, G20 zai guo ji she hui suo shou guan zhu jiao wei you xian, yi zhi long zhao zai G7 G8 de guang huan zhi xia, yin er ye wu fa zai quan qiu jing ji zhi li zhong fa hui ren he zhu dao xing zuo yong.,, er wei ji ying dui shi qi, 2008 nian 11 yue 2010 nian 6 yue, zai hua sheng dun lun dun pi zi bao, gong ju xing le san jie G20 feng hui. 2008 nian G20 ju xing shou ci quan qiu jing ji zhi li feng hui," mian lin de shou yao tiao zhan shi gong tong ying dui jin rong wei ji". er jin rong wei ji dui ge cheng yuan guo suo zao cheng de ju da gong tong wei xie, ye po shi ge cheng yuan guo chan sheng geng qiang lie de dong ji qiu tong cun yi, mi he bi ci jian de ren zhi cha yi yu zhu zhang fen qi, yin er da fu ti sheng le ji zhi de you xiao xing. xiao yong de ti sheng fan guo lai you xi yin geng duo guo ji guan zhu yu zhi chi, cong er jia qiang le gai ji zhi de guo ji dai biao xing yu he fa xing.,, 2008 nian 11 yue 14 ri zhi 15 ri, 20 ge guo jia yuan shou qi ju mei guo hua sheng dun, yi zhi jue xin jia qiang he zuo, gong tong nu li hui fu quan qiu zeng zhang, shi xian shi jie jin rong ti xi bi yao gai ge. ci hou, G20 gao bie le shang yi jie duan zuo wei song san fei zheng shi guo ji zu zhi de zhuang tai, zhuan er kai shi zai xie tiao ge guo zheng ce ying dui jin rong wei ji fang mian fa hui shi zhi xing zuo yong. 2009 nian, G20 que ding zai 2011 nian zhi hou jiang sheng ji wei nian du xing zhi du hua de lun tan, zhuan zhu yu tan tao quan qiu jing ji yi ti. zuo wei yi ge duo ceng ci de quan qiu lun tan, G20 de hui yi zai gai jie duan yi zhu bu fa zhan xi fen wei nei bu yu wai wei liang ge xiang hu guan lian de ti xi. nei bu ji zhi de xi hua yi ji wai wei pei tao ji zhi de zhu bu wan shan bei ren wei shi G20 ji zhi cheng shu hua gui fan hua de zhong yao te zheng.,, san yu fang ji zhi zhuan xing shi qi, 2010 nian 11 yue zhi 2015 nian 11 yue, zai duo lun duo shou er jia na luo si ka wo si sheng bi de bao bu li si ban an ta li ya, gong ju xing le qi jie G20 feng hui. zai wei ji ying dui qi zhi hou, sui zhe G20 zhi li xiao yong de zhu bu xian xian, shi jie jing ji kai shi hui fu fa zhan, ying dui wei ji de jin po xing sui zhi xia jiang, da guo zhu yao jing ji ti jian de cha yi he mao dun chong xin tu xian. yu ci tong shi, biao xian chu jiao qiang zhi li neng li yu qian li de G20 ji zhi ze xiang ying di cong" ying ji xing"" jiu ji xing" xiang yu fang xing chang gui ji zhi zhuan xing. cheng yuan guo yi ji guo ji she hui xi wang G20 zai wan cheng zhu bu zhi yu quan qiu wei ji chuang shang de ji chu shang, jin yi bu wei wei lai quan qiu xing jing ji wei ji de yu fang gong zuo zuo chu xin de ji zhi xing gong xian. gai jie duan G20 zai guo nei zheng zhi zhi li shen yi jie guo fang xiang que li jue ce he cheng nuo cheng nuo luo shi quan qiu zhi li zhi du jian she deng ling yu bu duan xing su gong tong li nian, qiang hua guo ji she hui de ning ju li, bing zhu bu da zao chu yi ge you geng qiang dai biao xing ren ke du he gao xiao xing de quan qiu zhi li wang luo. sheng bi de bao feng hui hou, G20 de yi ti he mu biao ye bian de geng jia guang fan, chu le guan zhu zhong chang qi quan qiu jing ji zeng zhang de zhi liang wai, ye jia ru le qi hou bian hua fan fu bai jiu ye lian he guo qian nian fa zhan mu biao deng xin yi ti.,, si" xin quan qiu hua" shi qi, 2016 nian 9 yue zhi jin, zai hang zhou han bao bu yi nuo si ai li si da ban, gong ju xing le si jie G20 feng hui. zai wei ji ying dui qi yu zhi hou de yu fang zhuan xing qi, yi zhong guo wei dai biao de fa zhan zhong guo jia, ping jie jiao you xiao de jing ji ci ji zheng ce yi ji dui guo ji she hui" gong yi" de qie shi wei hu, yi jing zhu bu chao yue mei ou chuan tong fa da jing ji ti, er cheng wei la dong shi jie jing ji fu su zeng zhang de zhu yao yin qing. er zhong guo deng xin xing jing ji ti dui da zong shang pin de ju da xu qiu, ye dai dong shi jie jing ji kuai su zeng zhang. zhei xie bu jin dao zhi le shi jie jing ji li liang dui bi yu guo ji ge ju de bian hua, er qie shi guo ji she hui dui zhong guo deng xin xing jing ji ti jin yi bu gai ge G20 ji zhi chong man qi xu.,, zhei xie qi xu ji zhong ti xian zai 2016 nian hang zhou feng hui de gong shi shang. zai mao yi ling yu, ge guo da cheng G20 quan qiu mao yi zeng zhang zhan lue, gong tong sheng ming fan dui mao yi bao hu zhu yi, tui dong jin kuai shi shi shi mao zu zhi mao yi bian li hua xie ding zai tou zi ling yu da cheng le G20 quan qiu tou zi zhi dao yuan ze zai jin rong ling yu da cheng mai xiang geng wen ding geng you ren xing de guo ji jin rong jia gou de G20 yi cheng zai fa zhan ling yu, ge guo jiu tui dong bao rong yu lian dong shi fa zhan tui dong luo shi 2030 ke chi xu fa zhan yi cheng da cheng gong shi zai chuang xin ling yu, feng hui shou ci jiang" chuang xin zeng zhang" na ru G20 he xin yi ti, bing jiu" G20 chuang xin zeng zhang lan tu" da cheng gong shi zai jie gou gai ge fang mian, hang zhou feng hui wan cheng le G20 jie gou xing gai ge de ding ceng she ji que ding liao jie gou xing gai ge de jiu da you xian ling yu he si shi ba tiao zhi dao yuan ze, zhi ding le heng liang gai ge jin zhan he cheng xiao de zhi biao ti xi.,, you qi nan neng ke gui de shi, zai zhong guo de tui dong xia, G20 ji zhi bu jin zhi li yu tui dong quan qiu fa zhan shi ye de qian jin, geng zi jue jiang zi shen yi cheng yu lian he guo ke chi xu fa zhan mu biao SDG2030 dui jie, yi tui dong quan qiu bao rong lian dong shi fa zhan, shi jing ji zeng zhang geng jia gong ping gong zheng di tong shi pu hui fa da guo jia he qian fa da guo jia. G20 ji zhi bu jin shou ci jiang fa zhan wen ti zhi yu quan qiu hong guan zheng ce kuang jia de tu chu wei zhi, er qie ye shou ci jiu luo shi SDG2030 zhi ding chu you yi ding ke cao zuo xing de ji ti xing dong ji hua. dui ci, guo ji she hui pu bian ren wei, G20 tui dong luo shi SDG2030 shi yi xiang" shuang ying" de xuan ze: yi fang mian, luo shi SDG2030 bu jin ke yi wei G20 zheng he qi fa zhan yi cheng ti gong nan de de qi ji, er qie you zhu yu tui dong G20 cheng gong zhuan xing wei quan qiu jing ji zhi li de chang qi xing ping tai ling yi fang mian, G20 hang zhou feng hui zai tui dong guo ji she hui luo shi SDG2030 shang mai chu le guan jian de di yi bu, dui tui dong yuan jing de quan mian shi xian ju you kai chuang he yin ling yi yi.,, mian dui xi fang suo tui dong de" jiu" quan qiu hua que fa dong li he guo ji he fa xing de kun ju, ri yi zou jin guo ji wu tai zhong xin de zhong guo zai zhong gong shi ba da yi hou ti chu le yi xi lie you guan quan qiu zhi li de xin fang an xin si lu. zheng ru xi jin ping zhu xi zhi chu, suo wei" xin quan qiu hua" de mu di jiu shi gou jian ren lei ming yun gong tong ti, ye jiu shi jian she yi ge chi jiu he ping pu bian an quan gong tong fan rong kai fang bao rong qing jie mei li de shi jie. dui G20 ji zhi er yan, zai li jing wei ji ying dui qi wei ji yu fang zhuan xing qi zhi hou, yi hang zhou feng hui de zhao kai wei biao zhi, zhuan xiang tui dong shi jie jing ji de" xin quan qiu hua", ji" rang jing ji quan qiu hua jin cheng geng you huo li geng jia bao rong geng ke chi xu". er zai zhe yi li shi jin cheng zhong, zhong guo" yao zhu dong zuo wei shi du guan li, rang jing ji quan qiu hua de zheng mian xiao ying geng duo shi fang chu lai, shi xian jing ji quan qiu hua jin cheng zai ping heng"" yao shun ying da shi jie he guo qing, zheng que xuan ze rong ru jing ji quan qiu hua de lu jing he jie zou yao jiang qiu xiao lv zhu zhong gong ping, rang bu tong guo jia bu tong jie ceng bu tong ren qun gong xiang jing ji quan qiu hua de hao chu.",,,, er G20 ji zhi mian lin de kun jing,, zai G20 feng hui ji zhi fa zhan de zao qi jie duan, wei rao ta zai quan qiu zhi li mo shi he cheng xiao de pi ping ke bei gui na wei" duo yu lun ju jue lun qiang hua lun ti dai lun shuai tui lun" wu da lei. jin nian lai, sui zhe fan ni quan qiu hua min cui zhu yi gu li zhu yi mao yi bao hu zhu yi deng si chao de xing qi, yi ji da guo jian jie gou xing mao dun de shang sheng, quan qiu zhi li mian lin xin kun jing, G20 ji zhi ye tong yang mian lin xin tiao zhan.,, yi G20 ji zhi zi shen xing zhi he zu zhi xing shi cun zai gu you que xian.,, G20 nei bu cun zai san ge zu he: yi shi G7, jiu shi jie jing ji he jin rong mian lin de zhu yao wen ti zai fa da guo jia nei jin xing xie tiao er shi jin zhuan guo jia zu zhi, zai G20 qi jian ye jiang jiu zhong da guo ji yi ti xie tiao li chang san shi zhong deng guo jia huo zhe zhong deng qiang guo zu cheng de cheng zhi wei" MITKA" de ji tuan, cheng yuan bao kuo mo xi ge yin ni tu er qi han guo he ao da li ya. ta men you li yu qian liang zhe zhi jian, xi wang" bao tuan qu nuan" jia da fa yan quan. yin ci, G20 ju you xian tian de lin shi xing fei zheng shi xing he bu wen ding xing, pi ru san ge ji tuan jian quan li bu jun heng que fa ning ju li he li bu zu deng. zhei xie te xing you gong tong dao zhi le G20 de di xiao xing, ru yi cheng de fan hua deng. feng hui ben shen zuo wei yi ge song san de guo ji lun tan, qi neng fou xing cheng he yi gong bao ben shen yi lai yu chu xi gai ci feng hui de shou nao men neng fou da cheng gong shi bu jin xiao lv bu gao, er qie mei nian de gong bao nei rong ye yin wei can yu fang shu liang jiao duo er jiao wei pang za. ci wai, ji bian da cheng gong shi bing fa biao gong bao, ye bu neng dui qian shu guo wei lai de xing wei gou cheng ren he shi zhi xing yue shu. feng hui chuang shi chu qi, mu biao ming que, jiu shi wei le ying dui 2008 nian jing ji wei ji, qie ge guo zheng ce chu bei shou duan ye xiang dui chong zu. er 11 nian hou de jin tian, ge guo neng gou shi yong de zheng ce zhua shou yi jing yong jin, qi xiao guo hai zai zhu nian di jian er ci ji jing ji fa zhan he xie tiao ge guo li chang de xin shou duan shang wei cheng shu.,, er quan qiu zhi li xin xing shi gei G20 ji zhi dai lai xin tiao zhan.,, yi shi di su zeng zhang de xin chang tai. quan qiu jing ji fa zhan zong ti qu shi wei di su zeng zhang, xin de wei ji he feng xian que zai shang sheng. ying guo jing ji xue jia za zhi zhuan men chuang zao le yi ge xin ci" man quan qiu hua" Slowbalisation, yi gai kuo dang qian ji wei lai quan qiu jing ji yu quan qiu hua de ji ben te zheng yu qu shi. bu lu jin si xue hui yu ying guo jin rong shi bao de shu ju xian shi, zi 2018 nian qiu ji yi lai, fa da jing ji ti ji xin xing jing ji ti de qing xu zhi biao he jing ji shu ju dou zai chi xu e hua, quan qiu jing ji yi jin ru" tong bu fang huan" jie duan, qie 2019 nian ye nan jian ni zhuan. er shi zheng duo cun liang de xin bo yi. zai quan qiu jing ji zeng zhang qu huan de bei jing xia, ge guo du qing xiang yu jia jin" duo fen dan gao", er bu shi xiang ban fa" zuo da dan gao". ge guo du shi tu cong xian you de jing ji zeng zhang zhong jue qu geng duo fen e, er fei tong guo jia qiang he zuo deng shou duan cu jin quan qiu jing ji de quan mian fu su yu ke chi xu zeng zhang. bao kuo shi jie di yi jing ji ti mei guo ben jie feng hui dong dao guo ri ben zai nei, fa da guo jia da duo mou qiu tong guo xiu gai quan qiu jing ji zhi li de you xi gui ze, yi bian cong xian you de jing ji cun liang zhong jin xing li yi zai fen pei, zhan you geng da fen e. san shi ke ji wai yi de xin xiao ying. ke ji ge ming jin guan you li ti sheng le quan qiu sheng chan li, dan you ci zai shou ru fen pei fang mian zao cheng de xin hong gou wei neng you xiao mi he, yu shi zai fa da guo jia chan sheng xin de guo nei mao dun, bing xiang guo ji she hui wai yi. si shi shi jie zhi xu de xin luan xiang. zai guo ji ceng mian, ying guo tuo ou dui ou zhou nai zhi quan qiu jing ji he jin rong ti xi dou chan sheng le yuan chao ci qian yu gu de ju da chong ji wu ke lan yu e luo si zai ke chi hai xia de dui zhi ji hua wu e e ou e mei e bei yue mao dun mian dui geng jia dong dang de zhong dong ju shi, mei ji cha shou zhong dong shi wu you bu xiang xian ru ni tan de mo leng liang ke tai shi shi zhong dong luan xiang jia shen, nan min wei ji yi lang he wei ji ba yi chong tu deng wen ti de jie jue qian jing geng jia an dan. zai guo jia ceng mian, you yi zheng dang zhi zheng zai bu shao ou zhou guo jia te bie shi dong ou guo jia yi ran cheng feng er zai ou zhou de he xin di dai, qi yuan yu fa guo de" huang bei xin" yun dong zheng yan xu he fang da ou zhou ge guo de pai wai he gu li zhu yi xian xiang, bing xiang ou zhou qi ta guo jia shi jie qi ta di qu man yan you nan min yi min wen ti suo yin qi de mao dun he chong tu ci qi bi fu fang bu sheng fang de" du lang" shi xi ji zheng li yong zui xin ke ji gei wu gu ping min zao cheng ju da sha shang.,, san xi fang fa da guo jia dui G20 ji zhi de zhong shi du da fu jiang di.,, ou meng nei bu de fen lie shi qi jin guan zhu yu zi shen you guan de yi ti, er hu lue quan qiu zhi li. ri ben ze xi wang jie 2019 nian da ban feng hui wei 2025 nian da ban bo lan hui yu re pu chen, sui ti chu" she hui 5. 0" gai nian. bo lan hui zhu ti shi" gou jian wei lai she hui, xiang xiang ming ri sheng huo". xian ran, ri ben zai yi ti she ding shang zhi zai ba feng hui de zhu ti yin ru guo nei gong gong shi wu guan li, er fei G20 zhi fen suo zai de quan qiu zhi li ling yu. yu ci tong shi, te lang pu zheng fu dui quan qiu zhi li G20 feng hui de ren zhi li chang he xing wei dou chan sheng le zhi bian. zai feng hui chu chuang shi qi, mei guo zong ti shang reng feng xing guo ji zhu yi, qiang diao shuang bian ji duo bian he zuo. dan jin liang nian lai, te lang pu zheng fu tiao zheng mei guo dui wai zong ti zhan lue, feng xing" guo jia zhu yi", qiang diao" mei guo ye shi min zu guo jia nation state", qi guo nei shen zhi chu xian le" pao qi G20" de sheng yin. G20 chu chuang shi qi, mei guo shang neng fang xia shen duan, wei xun qiu he zuo er shi du rang quan fang quan dan xian zai sui zhe mei guo jing ji de fu su, te lang pu zheng fu zheng mou qiu cong duo bian guo ji zu zhi zhong" qiang xing shou quan" ru bu da ying, ze yi" tui qun" hui ying. mei guo bao shou zhu yi shi li zai guo nei shi wu zhong li lai zhu zhang" xiao zheng fu da she hui". te lang pu zheng fu zheng shi gai pian hao jia su wai yi dao guo ji she hui he quan qiu zhi li zhong, yin er xue ruo zhi yue le G20 zhe lei yi lai ge guo zheng fu tong li he zuo de quan qiu zhi li ping tai de ying xiang yu xiao yong. 2019 nian nian chu, te lang pu zheng fu zai you guan mei guo jing ji shi wu de duo ci biao tai zhong, dian ming liao san ge guo ji jing mao zu zhi zuo wei qi zhi ding jing ji zheng ce de can kao zhong dian, bao kuo shi mao zu zhi WTO jing ji he zuo yu fa zhan zu zhi OECD he ya tai jing he zu zhi APEC, dan mei you G20, jin yi bu shuo ming G20 ji zhi bu shou te lang pu zheng fu de zhong shi.,, si zhong mei zhan lue jing zheng shi G20 lun wei da guo bo yi" jue dou chang" de feng xian zeng da.,, zi 2018 nian shang ban nian yi lai, shou zhong mei liang guo mao yi mo ca jia ju de fu mian chong ji, G20 zai lun wei" qing tan guan" de tong shi, you ping tian le lun wei da guo jue li zhi zhan chang de feng xian. 2018 nian, zhong mei liang guo zai ling yi zhong yao kua qu yu duo bian zhu yi ping tai APEC feng hui shang de la ju zhan, yi ji you ci dao zhi de da hui gong tong xuan yan liu chan, gei dang nian de G20 feng hui qiao xiang le jing zhong. ye zheng shi jian yu dui da guo la ju zhan dui duo bian xie tiao ping tai ju da sun shang de fang fan yu gui bi, zai APEC feng hui hou bu jiu zhao kai de a gen ting G20 feng hui shang, zhong mei liang guo yi ji guo ji she hui dou zuo chu le yi ding nu li, bi mian tong lei shi gu de zai ci fa sheng. ran er ji bian ru ci, zai a gen ting feng hui shang suo bao lou chu lai de zhong mei mao dun yu fen qi, yi ran cheng wei hui nei hui wai de yu lun jiao dian. cong guo ji mei ti de bao dao liang lai kan, quan qiu dui zhong mei guan xi de guan zhu yuan yuan chao guo le dui feng hui ben shen yi cheng de guan zhu, qie ren wei a gen ting G20 feng hui" yi jing bian cheng le zhong mei zhan lue yu jing ji mo ca de xie tiao ping tai". zai jing mao mo ca zhi wai, mei guo zai tai hai nan hai de xing dong, yi ji te lang pu zheng fu chu tai de" yin tai" di yuan zhan lue ye dui zhong mei guan xi de wen ding xing zao cheng chong ji, cong er zeng jia le liang guo zai G20 deng duo bian kuang jia nei de jing zheng qiang du.,,,, san" zhong guo fang an" mian lin de tiao zhan,, ru qian wen suo hui gu, yi 2016 nian hang zhou feng hui de zhao kai wei biao zhi, zai zhong guo deng fa zhan zhong guo jia de gong tong tui dong xia, G20 ji zhi zuo wei quan qiu jing ji zhi li de zhong yao ping tai, zheng chao zhe tui dong" xin quan qiu hua" de mu biao mai jin, bing qu de yi ding cheng guo. ran er, zai zui jin san nian de quan qiu zhi li shi jian zhong," hang zhou gong shi" zai jia qiang ge guo zheng ce xie tiao chuang xin zeng chang fang shi gai ge jing ji jin rong zhi li ji gou cu jin mao yi he tou zi bian li hua tui dong bao rong he lian dong shi fa zhan deng ling yu de nu li ye zao dao le yi ding zu li, mian lin feng xian he tiao zhan.,, yi xi fang fa da guo jia jia da lian he zhi hua li du.,, zuo wei xi fang zheng zhi jing ji jia gou de zi ran chan wu," quan qiu zhi li" ben zhi shang ke bei li jie wei mou zhong" peng you quan". qi zhong, ying yu guo jia mei ying jia ao xin suo wei" wu yan" tong meng fa de deng xi ou da guo yi ji ri ben reng ju yu he xin wei zhi. ta men zai guo jia ceng mian tong guo yi xi lie tong meng guan xi xiang hu bang ding, tong shi zai ci guo jia ceng mian, shen zhi zai jia zu ge ren ceng mian shang ju you shang bai nian de shi jian he jiao wang wang luo, zi ran xing cheng yi ge jiao wei feng bi de xiao quan zi, bi ci zai qing bao zi yuan li nian zheng ce shang cun zai yi ding de gong shi yu gong xiang. ta men zhi jian cun zai mao dun, dan mian dui" wai lai zhe" shi ze wang wang biao xian chu gao du de yi zhi xing, shi tu gong tong" xun fu"" gui zhi" zuo wei quan qiu zhi li" xin lai zhe" de zhong guo. quan qiu zhi li ben zhi shang nai" quan qiu gong qi", ying gai wei quan ren lei de gong tong ming yun he fu zhi fu wu. dan dang qian zai xi fang qiang guo de ba quan yin ying xia, zuo wei guo ji she hui zui zhong yao" gong gong chan pin" de quan qiu zhi li reng zai xiang dang cheng du shang bei mou xie xiao quan zi xiao ji tuan" gong qi si yong". yin ci, zhong guo reng xu shi jian yi ji lei quan qiu zhi li jing yan.,, xi fang zai quan qiu zhi li ge ling yu zhong de jing yan zi yuan he shou duan reng qiang yu zhong guo. yi ge bi xu cheng ren de shi shi shi, G7 reng jiang zai G20 kuang jia nei fa hui zhu dao zuo yong. G7 tong chang xian xing kai hui, tao lun dui zhong da wen ti de gong tong li chang, ran hou zai G20 feng hui shang ti xian yi zhi xing. ke ti zu diao yan biao ming, ou mei zhi jian de yi xie zheng zhi ben zhi shang bing fei ta men bi ci jian de zhi jie mao dun, er shi ou zhou yi xie guan yuan ren wei, mei guo bu ying jiang mao yi zhan mao tou zhi xiang zi ji, er ying ou mei" lian shou" dui fu zhong guo. ke jian, zhe zhong suo wei de" ou mei mao dun" yu zhong fang ci qian de she xiang qi wang xiang bi, cun zai jiao da ju li. gu ci ci da ban feng hui yi ji zhi hou de G20 hui yi shang, dou bu neng pai chu mei ou zai G7 kuang jia xia shi xian da cheng xie yi, er hou zhen dui zhong guo de ke neng.,, er" zhong fang an" mian lin bei xi fang qu jie he wu ming hua de wei xie,, zhong guo yu xi fang de quan qiu zhi li li nian reng cun zai xiang dang chai yi: yi shi zai quan qiu zhi li de zhu ti shang, zhong guo bi jiao qiang diao lian he guo de zuo yong, er mei guo ze qiang diao zi ji de lian meng ti xi you xian er shi zai quan qiu zhi li de yi ti shang, zhong guo jian chi fa zhan you xian, mei guo jian chi an quan you xian san shi zai can yu quan qiu zhi li de zhu quan guo jia di wei shang, zhong guo qiang diao suo you guo jia bu fen da xiao dou shi ping deng de" quan qiu huo ban guan xi", er mei guo ze fen chu deng ji, ren wei qi ben guo ji meng you de li yi yao you xian man zu si shi zai quan qiu zhi li de fang fa shang, zhong guo qiang diao" bu gan she nei zheng" yuan ze, er mei guo shi yao gan she nei zheng de. hai you xue zhe cong wai jiao jing ji she hui zheng ce san ge wei du kao cha zhong mei quan qiu zhi li guan de cha yi, ren wei ta men zai quan qiu zhi li de fang shi jia zhi guan yi ji dui quan qiu zhi li ge lei xing wei ti de zhong shi cheng du dou cun zai jiao da cha yi ru guo shuo mei guo shi" dai you ba quan se cai de zi you zhu yi" quan qiu zhi li guan, ze zhong guo de jia zhi li nian ke bei shi wei" zhu quan ji chu shang de ping deng zhu yi". jia zhi li nian yu xing wei fang shi shang de ju da cha yi zai wang luo kong jian gui ze zhi ding qi hou he zuo deng zhong da yi ti zhong dou you ming xian ti xian. er dang qian zhong mei zhan lue jing zheng de jia ju geng fang da le shang shu cha yi.,, zheng shi you yu xi fang zai quan qiu zhi li de zhu ti can yu zhe guan xi yi ti mu biao ju ti shou duan deng fang mian yu zhong guo de li jie cun zai xiang dang chai yi, mu qian zai xi fang" quan qiu zhi li" de yan jiu quan zi zhong bing mei you an zhong guo ben yi qu li jie" zhong guo fang an", shen zhi yi xie xi fang zhi ku mei ti huo you yi huo wu yi di ba quan qiu zhi li" zhong guo fang an" deng tong yu" yi dang zhuan zheng"" gong chan zhu yi"" guo you qi ye" deng, ke yi zhi zao" zhong guo fang an" yu xi fang chuan tong zheng zhi li nian he zhi li kuang jia jian" bu ke tiao he de chong tu", jin er shi" jiang hao zhong guo quan qiu zhi li gu shi" mian lin tiao zhan.,, jin nian lai, xi fang guo jia lv lv zai fa zhan mo shi mao yi bu tie shi chang jing ji di wei deng ling yu xiang zhong guo fa nan. zai da ban feng hui ji ci hou de G20 feng hui shang, xi fang mei ti jiang da gai lv dui zhong guo ji qi fa zhan mo shi zhan kai yi ding cheng du de yu lun di zhi. tong shi, xian yu G20 feng hui zhao kai de G7 feng hui ye cun zai yu xian zai shang shu yi ti shang da cheng mou zhong he mou gong shi de ke neng. er zai guo qu de duo ci feng hui shang yu zhong guo xing cheng mi qie zhan lue xie zuo yu hu dong de guo jia, pi ru zuo wei jin zhuan guo jia zhi yi de ba xi, ye ke neng zai you yi de ya yi er bo suo na luo zong tong dang xuan hou zhuan xiang qin mei, cong er jin yi bu xue ruo G20 kuang jia nei zhi chi zhong guo fang an zhong guo zhu zhang de sheng yin.,, san hang zhou feng hui shang suo que li de ruo gan yuan ze mian lin bei bian yuan hua de feng xian.,," er shi guo ji tuan de xing dong li yu yin dao li, zheng zai yu chi zhi yi heng luo shi cheng guo, que bao ge xiang yi cheng de yan xu xing." hang zhou G20 feng hui zhong de duo xiang he xin nei rong, ru zhong shi ji jian jia qiang fan fu cu jin zeng zhang hu lian hu tong qi he lian he guo ke chi xu fa zhan mu biao deng, shu yu chang qi yi lai G20 feng hui de chuan tong yi ti. zhong guo wei qi yan xu zuo chu ju da gong xian. ran er, ling wai yi xie ju you xian ming zhong guo te se de zhu zhang li nian, que zheng zai bei xi fang guo jia dan hua xi shi he bian yuan hua. pi ru, zai hang zhou feng hui shang suo que li de" mao yi bu zhang hui yi ji zhi hua"" lv se jin rong"" fa zhan zhong guo jia di wei"" tong guo ji chu she shi jian she ti zhen jing ji" deng, yi zai hou xu de feng hui zhong bei lu xu dan hua huo ti chu.,, yi mao yi yu tou zi ling yu wei li, guo ji mao yi yu tou zi gui mo de bu duan wei suo guo ji mao yi tou zi ti xi de bu duan fen hua, dou gei guo ji mao yi tou zi de zhi li dai lai yan jun tiao zhan. wei ci, zhong guo zheng fu zai G20 hang zhou feng hui shang jiu tui jin mao yi tou zi zeng zhang qiang hua G20 mao yi tou zi ji zhi cu jin fa zhan zhong guo jia quan mian can yu quan qiu jia zhi lian deng fang mian tui dong cheng yuan guo da cheng gong shi. wei shi shang shu nu li zhi du hua chang tai hua, hang zhou feng hui hai tong guo le G20 quan qiu tou zi zheng ce zhi dao yuan ze, zhe shi guo ji she hui shou ci zai duo bian ji zhi xia jiu quan qiu tou zi gui ze de zhi ding da cheng gong shi. zai quan qiu duo bian tou zi ti zhi que shi de qing kuang xia, zhi dao yuan ze you xiao di tian bu le guo ji jing ji zhi li ling yu de kong bai, zai quan qiu duo bian tou zi gui zhi de li shi shang le qu de zhong da tu po. zhi dao yuan ze ti chu de jiu xiang yuan ze bu jin fu gai le guo ji tou zi ti zhi de suo you he xin ban kuai he yao su, tong shi hai na ru quan xin de guo ji tou zi gui ze he xin yao su, dui xian xing guo ji tou zi xie ding ti xi de zeng liang gai ge ti gong le you xiao de zheng ce zhi yin, gei guo ji mao yi tou zi ti xi fa zhan dai lai le xin de qi ji, tui dong guo ji mao yi tou zi de guo ji he zuo jin ru xin jie duan.,, ran er, zai ci hou de liang jie feng hui shang, shang shu hang zhou feng hui gong shi yu cheng guo bing wei bei dong dao guo zai da hui yi cheng zhong yan xu, xiang guan de yan tao re du ming xian xia jiang. ge feng hui zhu ban fang geng qing xiang yu jiang ben guo suo guan zhu de nei rong she wei he xin yi cheng. zhi yu dui hang zhou gong shi zuo hou xu de tui jin he luo shi, ze mian lin geng da tiao zhan. you qi xu yao zhi chu de shi, zai hang zhou feng hui ju xing shi, jin guan zhong mei zai quan qiu zhi li mu biao he shou duan shang cun zai yi ding fen qi, dan dang shi de mei guo ao ba ma zheng fu zong ti shang reng ran zan cheng guo ji he zuo, yin er yu zhong guo ming que fan dui mao yi he tou zi bao hu zhu yi de zhu zhang cun zai yi ding gong shi. ran er jin liang nian lai, sui zhe te lang pu zheng fu suo qiang li tui xing de" mei guo you xian" yuan ze mao yi bao hu zhu yi, zhong mei shang shu gong shi zheng shou dao quan mian qin shi.,,,, si zhong guo de ying dui,, jin guan G20 mian lin zhong zhong tiao zhan, dan ta reng ran shi zhong guo ji ji can yu yin ling quan qiu zhi li de zhong yao ping tai. er zuo wei fu ze ren da guo, zhong guo bu jin xu yao li yong hao zhe ge ping tai wei guo jia fa zhan min zu fu xing chuang zao geng hao de guo ji huan jing, ye shi wei guo ji she hui, you qi shi guang da fa zhan zhong guo jia ti gong geng duo de gong gong chan pin, xie shou gou jian geng jia gong ping he li de guo ji xin zhi xu, wei zui zhong jian cheng" ren lei ming yun gong tong ti" dian ding ji chu. ji yu shang wen de fen xi, zhong guo zai xian jie duan ke yi cong yi xia cuo shi ru shou, zai jin yi bu hang shi hang zhou gong shi han wei guo jia li yi de tong shi, tui dong quan qiu zhi li de fa zhan yu G20 ji zhi de jin yi bu you hua.,, yi zhong duan qi yan xu hang zhou gong shi han wei zhong guo fang an de ce lue si kao.,, di yi, jie zhu G20 feng hui cu jin da guo xie tiao. shou xian, chu li hao da guo xie tiao te bie shi zhong mei xie tiao, shen shen chu li te lang pu zheng fu" mei guo di yi" mao yi bao hu zhu yi zheng ce yu zhong guo suo gao ju de quan qiu hua da qi jian de guan xi, bi mian liang ge da guo jian dui bi ci de zhan lue yi tu he neng li chan sheng zhi ming wu pan. qi ci, jie zhu can jia G20 feng hui yu dong dao guo la jin ju li, kai zhan gong gong wai jiao ye shi ti zhong zhi yi. pi ru, zai da ban feng hui shang, zhong guo ke yi cong bu tong ceng mian hang shi zhong ri guan xi, cu jin zheng ce gou tong he min xin xiang tong, you qi shi xing su ri ben xia yi dai dui zhong guo de zheng mian ren zhi. zai ci, ke jie G20 feng hui hang shi yu xin xing da guo de guan xi, ji xu yu ta men yi qi xun zhao gong tong li yi he gong tong yu yan, ru he yin du deng guo ke yi zai da shu ju yi yao zhi shi chan quan deng ling yu jiu guo ji mao yi gui ze gong ping hua gai ge deng yi ti da cheng gong shi. zai G20 kuang jia zhong ying zhu yi tuan jie fa zhan zhong guo jia, xie tiao li chang, yi qi fa sheng.,, di er, yi G20 feng hui wei ping tai zhan ju guo ji dao yi zhi gao dian, tui dong guo ji zhi du he guo ji zu zhi gai ge. zhong guo bu fang zai G20 feng hui ping tai quan mian chan shu you guan WTO gai ge ti gao zheng ce tou ming du gu li shi chang jing zheng han wei gong ping mao yi yuan ze deng zhong guo zhu zhang, zuo yong zai yu: yi shi zhan ju guo ji she hui de dao yi zhi gao dian er shi dui wai tong guo zai yi ding cheng du shang" tong zhan" mei ou guo nei de bu fen gong shang jin rong jie ren shi lai huan he yu mei ou jian de zhan lue mao dun san shi dui nei jin yi bu jie zhu kuo da kai fang lai jia su guo nei gai ge.,, di san, gao du zhong shi G20 pei tao huo dong, yi da zao geng jia feng man li ti de guo ji xing xiang. zhong guo guo jia zhi ku gao xiao zhi ku she hui zhi ku dou ying ji ji can yu G20 feng hui de chou ban can hui he hou xu gong zuo, zai er shi guo gong shang lun tan B20 er shi guo zhi ku lun tan T20 er shi guo qing nian lun tan L20 er shi guo fu nv lun tan W20 deng ping tai shang ji xu fa li, cong er da zao geng jia feng man li ti de zhong guo guo ji xing xiang yu ying xiang li.,, di si, jie zhu" yi dai yi lu" ya tou xing deng zheng ce zhua shou luo shi" hang zhou gong shi", bu duan kuo da guo ji she hui de jie shou du, bing zai cu jin" wu tong" de gong tong shi jian zhong jia yi da mo wan shan. zuo wei" yi dai yi lu" jian she de" xue mai jing luo", ji chu she shi tou zi ji hua jiang jian she ya ou di qu yi hai lu kong jiao tong xian you qi guan dao shu dian xian lu he tong xin wang luo deng wei gou cheng yao su de zong he xing li ti jiao hu wang luo, wei yan xian guo jia de min jian wen hua" si xiang jiao liu" dian ding" wu zhi jiao wang" ji chu. er zai" ni quan qiu hua" da chao xia, jia qiang shi jie ge guo ji chu she shi jian she he zuo, cu jin hu lian hu tong, ben shen jiu shi" tan suo yi zhong quan xin de kai fang xing jing ji fa zhan fang shi de chang shi, wei mi qie guo jia jian jing mao de wang lai he di yu quan qiu hua feng xian ti gong geng qiang da de zhan lue yi tuo.",, yi zuo wei hang zhou feng hui liang dian de" lv se fa zhan yu lv se jin rong"" yi ji chu she shi jian she cu jin jing ji she hui fa zhan" wei li, ke yi zai" yi dai yi lu" jian she yi ji ya tou xing rong zi zhi chi deng ling yu jia qiang zheng ce qing xie yu fu chi. bu fang jie zhu" yi dai yi lu" de jian she, xiang quan qiu tui guang" yao zhi fu, xian xiu lu" de zhong guo fa zhan li nian, bing jiang sheng tai wen ming rong ru lv se ji jian xiang mu zhi zhong.,, chuang xin lv se jin rong ji zhi bu jin you zhu yu lv se ji chu she shi jian she, er qie neng gou yin ling duo bian kai fa yin hang can yu lv se ji chu she shi jian she. yin ci, ye bu fang yi ya tou xing wei qian tou dan wei, lian he shi jie yin hang ya zhou kai fa yin hang ou zhou fu xing kai fa yin hang ou ya kai fa yin hang yi si lan kai fa yin hang fei zhou kai fa yin hang deng zai" yi dai yi lu" yan xian you ye wu jiao ji de duo bian yin hang, jian li bao kuo ji chu she shi tou rong zi zai nei de he zuo guan xi, geng hao di fa hui duo bian kai fa yin hang zi jin you shi hu bu de xie tong xiao ying.,, jia qiang zhong guo lv se jin rong guo ji biao zhun di zhi ding yu quan qiu tui guang gong zuo shi zhong zhong zhi zhong. ban sui zhe guo ji she hui dui yu qi hou bian hua zi yuan bao hu sheng tai ping heng deng wen ti de ri yi zhong shi, wei lai lv se jin rong ye wu jiang you geng da de fa zhan kong jian, quan qiu lv se jin rong ye wu zheng chu zai tong yi tiao qi pao xian shang. zuo wei lv se jin rong fu wu he xin de lv se biao zhun, qi nei rong yu gui fan de fa zhan ye dou zai qi bu jie duan. er zai lv se jin rong biao zhun shang, jiao zhi yu guo ji" zi xia er shang" de zi yuan xing biao zhun, zhong guo de lv se jin rong biao zhun geng duo cai yong le zheng fu yin dao he shi chang hua yue shu xiang jie he de fang shi, tong guo" zi shang er xia" de zhi dao xing zhun ze, dui lv se jin rong cong lv se chan ye xiang mu jie ding mu ji zi jin tou xiang cun xu qi jian zi jin guan li xin xi pi lu ren zheng deng wen ti jin xing yin dao he gui fan. yin ci, tui dong lv se jin rong de zhong guo biao zhun guo ji hua, zheng mian lin yi ge zhong yao de li shi ji yu, bing yong you zheng ce zhi chi you shi.,, yu ci tong shi, zai hua yu ceng mian yi yi jian li" yi dai yi lu" sheng tai wen ming chuan bo ji zhi, kuo da yan xian guo jia dui zhong guo sheng tai fa zhan li nian de ren tong, jia qiang min xin xiang tong, wei jian cheng" yi dai yi lu" de zui zhong yuan jing ren lei ming yun gong tong ti dian ding ji chu. zai shang shu guo cheng zhong," hang zhou gong shi" jiang zai shuang bian duo bian de jian she shi jian zhong bei guo ji she hui" nei hua".,, er zhong chang qi jin yi bu you hua G20 jia gou tui jin quan qiu zhi li gai ge de ce lue si kao.,, cong zhong chang qi kan, wei lai 5 10 nian jiang shi quan qiu zhi li" zhong guo fang an" quan mian tui jin kai hua jie guo de shi nian. jin guan reng mian lin kong qian de tiao zhan he zu li, dan zhong guo jue qi de guo jia shi li" zhong guo fang an" zi shen de jia zhi yu quan qiu xi yin li, dou wei zhong guo tui jin geng jia gong ping bao rong ke chi xu de quan qiu zhi li ti gong xin dong li. wei yan xu hang zhou feng hui de cheng guo, tong shi yin ying xin de tiao zhan, ying qie shi tui jin quan qiu zhi li zhong guo fang an de luo shi, ju ti ke cong ru xia fang mian ru shou.,, di yi, zhen dui shi jie da guo shi li xiao zhang yu quan qiu zhi li jia gou de xian shi, que li geng jia fu he shi ji de quan qiu zhi li mu biao he zhan lue yu qi shi du tiao zheng dui G20 de ren zhi yu xin tai, zai quan qiu zhi li zhong ju jiao li suo neng ji de zhong dian ling yu. zhong guo zai ji xu li yong G20 ping tai ji ji can yu quan qiu zhi li de tong shi, yi ba zhong dian mao ding zai lian he guo guo ji huo bi ji jin zu zhi WTO APEC deng duo bian he qu yu ji zhi, qie reng yi shuang bian wai jiao he shuang bian jing mao guan xi wei ji chu.,, zhong guo dui G20 zi dan sheng zhi ri qi jiu zi dai de zhi du xing jie gou xing xian tian que xian, yi ji min zu guo jia de zi li xing zi zhu xing xu you chong fen quan mian di ren shi tong shi ye xu yong geng zhang shi jian shi ying quan qiu zhi li de" shen shui qu". dang xia, quan qiu zhi li pan gen cuo jie, fu za yi chang, zhong guo zuo wei xin shou reng xu guan xin guan cha xu xin xue xi. xi fang yi xie yu lun guo du xuan yang" zhong guo ling dao quan"" zhong guo mo shi zhu dao yin dao quan qiu zhi li", dui ci zhong guo you ying jin shen.,, zhong guo you qi xu dui guo ji ti xi gai ge de man chang xing cuo zhe xing you zu gou de xin li zhun bei. shi jie yin hang guo ji huo bi ji jin zu zhi shi mao zu zhi deng reng you mei ou zhu dao zhong mei mao yi mo ca de chang qi xing ye jiang ying xiang guo ji ti xi de gai ge mei ou mei ri jing mao zhi zheng bing bu hui wan quan shi xi fang si lie guo ji ti xi wei lai kong jiang chang qi xian yu" dou er bu po" de mo ca" xin chang tai". yin ci, zhong guo can yu guo ji zhi li, jiang jing li yi ge chang qi de" gan zhong xue" guo cheng.,, xi jin ping zong shu ji 2013 nian 1 yue 5 ri zai xin jin zhong yang wei yuan hui de wei yuan hou bu wei yuan xue xi guan che dang de shi ba da jing shen yan tao ban shang zhi chu:" wo men yao shen ke ren shi zi ben zhu yi she hui de zi wo tiao jie neng li, chong fen gu ji dao xi fang fa da guo jia zai jing ji ke ji jun shi fang mian chang qi zhan ju you shi de ke guan xian shi, ren zhen zuo hao liang zhong she hui zhi du chang qi he zuo he dou zheng de ge fang mian zhun bei. zai xiang dang zhang shi qi nei, chu ji jie duan de she hui zhu yi hai bi xu tong sheng chan li geng fa da de zi ben zhu yi chang qi he zuo he dou zheng, hai bi xu ren zhen xue xi he jie jian zi ben zhu yi chuang zao de you yi wen ming cheng guo, shen zhi bi xu mian dui bei ren men yong xi fang fa da guo jia de chang chu lai bi jiao wo guo she hui zhu yi fa zhan zhong de bu zu bing jia yi zhi ze de xian shi. wo men bi xu you hen qiang da de zhan lue ding li, jian jue di zhi pao qi she hui zhu yi de ge zhong cuo wu zhu zhang, zi jue jiu zheng chao yue jie duan de cuo wu guan nian." gai wen yu 2019 nian 3 yue 31 ri chong xin kan zai yu qiu shi za zhi he ren min ri bao tou ban tou tiao, bu jin zhan shi chu zhong guo guo jia ling dao ren dui shi jie da ju de zui xin guan cha, geng ti xian qi gao zhan yuan zhu de zhan lue yuan jian yu yi yi guan zhi de zheng que yan pan. er ren qing zhe yi dian, you zhu yu zhong guo jin yi bu shen shen yan pan bao kuo G20 zai nei de quan qiu zhi li ping tai de shi ji jia zhi, yi ji zhong guo zai qi zhong de jue se yu di wei, cong er que li geng jia fu he shi ji de quan qiu zhi li mu biao he zhan lue yu qi.,, zai chong xin tiao zheng dui ben guo shi li quan qiu zhi li neng li yu G20 qian li de ren zhi zhi hou, zhong guo bu fang jiang G20 zuo wei zhong guo zhan shi xing xiang yu zhu zhang de wai hua te se yu chuan bo ping tai, cong er geng jia wu shi you xiao di shi yong gai ping tai.,, di er, jie zhu jin zhuan guo jia shang hai he zuo zu zhi deng duo bian jia gou, jia qiang yu xin xing jing ji ti zai guo ji jing ji jin rong zhi li ling yu de xie tiao xie zuo. quan qiu ri yi gao zhang de" fan quan qiu hua" lang chao yuan yu xi fang guo jia zai dang qian te ding jie duan chu xian de qu yu he zhou qi xing dao tui. gai lang chao yi jing zai fa da jing ji ti zhong yin fa jiao cha chuan ran shi de mao yi bao hu zhu yi mao yi zeng zhang huan man yi min zheng ce shou jin, cong er jian jie dao zhi quan qiu hua de yin qing cong fa da jing ji ti zhuan xiang xin xing jing ji ti. yin ci, zhong guo bu fang jie zhu jin zhuan shang he deng duo bian zu zhi, jia qiang yu xin xing jing ji ti zai guo ji jing ji yu jin rong zhi li de xie tiao yu xie zuo, gong tong han wei zi you mao yi kai fang shi chang de jia zhi guan, bing zhua zhu xia yi lun quan qiu hua jiang dai lai de ji yu.,, zai guo ji jin rong ling yu, shi jie jing ji yi jing jin ru dong dang bu ding de" mei yuan tui chao" qi. chang qi lai kan, mei yuan jia xi ke neng po shi xi fang qi ye zhai shi chang bei po chi xu qu gang gan hua, xing cheng" zhai wu xuan ya", cong er yin e zhi chuang xin er jian jie da ji shi jie jing ji. chu le mei yuan zi shen de wen ti, mei guo zheng fu e yi li yong qi mei yuan ba quan, pin fan shi yong jin rong shou duan zhi cai da ya ta guo, ye po shi geng duo guo jia cong guo jia an quan yu zhan lue de jiao du jing ti mei yuan. you qi shi e luo si yi lang deng jin nian lai bao shou mei guo jin rong zhi cai zhi ku de guo jia zheng mou qiu jia qiang guo ji jin rong he zuo, xi wang tong guo qiang hua zai guo ji zhi fu yu qing suan ling yu de xie tiao lai po chu zhi cai, cong er han wei ben guo jin rong jing ji zhu quan.,, you shang shu zhu duo yin su suo yin fa de" qu mei yuan hua" DeDollarization qu shi ye zai ke guan shang wei ren min bi guo ji hua zhong guo jia qiang yu xin xing shi chang jing ji ti jin rong huo bi xie zuo ti gong le yi ding de you li de wai zai tiao jian. wei le zhu bu fa zhan qi zi ji de gong ying lian he jia zhi lian xi tong, zhong guo ye bu fang zai guo ji huo bi jie suan qing suan xi tong zhong jia qiang yu e luo si ou meng deng de xie zuo, shi du zhu bu di jian dui mei yuan de guo du yi lai, cong er jia qiang zhong guo de huo bi jing ji zhu quan, bing tui dong quan qiu jing ji jin rong zhi li chao zhe geng jia gong ping zheng yi de fang xiang fa zhan.,, ben wen zhuan zi: xian dai guo ji guan xi 2019 nian di 5 qi,, ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: yi dai yi lu bai ren lun tan ID: obor100, zuo zhe: wang wen wang peng, biao ti tu lai zi shi jue zhong guo

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科技股发出变盘信号?这两大板块主力特大单抛售

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  【超级大单】科技股发出变盘信号?这两大板块主力特大单抛售

  来源:数据宝

  原创: 林丽峰

  今日特大单净流出27.95亿元,计算机和通信两大科技板块净流出居首。中国平安特大单净流入近12亿元。

  沪指今日震荡走高,一度站上2900点,收盘小幅上扬0.49%,收报2897.43点。两市合计成交4695亿元,行业板块涨跌互现,医药板块与工业大麻概念强势领涨。科创板个股普跌。

  北上资金继续净流入,今日流入11.49亿元,其中沪股通流出1.56亿元,深股通流入13.05亿元。

  两大科技板块分别净流出超9亿元

  今日大单资金继续净流出,但流出额相比昨日继续减少,今日净流出27.95亿元。两市共计1500余只个股特大单净流入,1800余股特大单净流出。

  行业方面,今日有13个行业特大单净流入,另有15个行业特大单净流出。医药生物行业今日特大单净流入超12亿元,医药指数今日同样领涨市场,行业指数大涨2.4%,包括恒瑞医药华兰生物爱尔眼科多只医药股今日创历史新高。恒瑞医药和药明康德是行业内特大单净流入最高的两只个股,分别净流入1.29亿元和1.1亿元。

  银行板块特大单净流入8.52亿元,居流入第二位,招商银行兴业银行两只个股分别净流入2.1亿元和1.87亿元。非银金融流入6.6亿元,多元金融日表现强势,消息面上,昨日央行印发《金融科技发展规划》。中国平安是行业内特大单净流入金额最高的个股,净流入11.87亿元。另外,其他净流入较高的行业还有食品饮料行业,净流入3亿元,有色金属和商业贸易净流入唐朝李怡_中文资讯平台超1亿元。

  计算机和通信两大科技板块净流出居首,分别净流出超9亿元。计算机行业指数收跌0.48%,但行业内没有一只个股特大单流出超亿元,四维图新是行业流出最高的个股,也仅流出9000余万元。

  通信行业中的中兴通讯单只个股净流出2.14亿元,其他个股流出金额均低于亿元。农林牧渔行业特大单流出8.7亿元,正邦科技新希望天邦股份民和股份等4只个股流出超亿元祝福你一生简谱_中文资讯平台。其他流出金额较高的行业还有电子、机械设备和传媒,流出金额在6-7亿元。国防军工、公用事业流出在3亿元以上。

  山东癌症村分布图_中文资讯平台中国平安一骑绝尘 特大单净流入超10亿元

  今日特大单净流入超亿元的个股有18只,流出超亿元的个股有21只。中国平安特大单净流入“一骑绝尘”,全天净流入11.88亿元,是唯一一只流入超10亿级的个股。消息面上,保险股上半年业绩大增,中国人寿昨日披露的半年报显示,上半年净利润同比增1.29倍。

  贵州茅台继昨日特大单流入6亿元以后,今日继续流入5亿元,股价再创新高,市值突破1.4万亿元。金力永磁风华高科(维权)分别流入3.7亿元和3.5亿元。金力永磁封住涨停板,消息面上,稀土产品价格近日出现反弹。另外,净流入在2亿元级别的还有领益智造立讯精密、招商银行等个股。

  京东方A东方财富两只个股流出金额差3亿元,东方财富冲高回落,微跌0.81%。五粮液今日未跟随韩寒 金莎_中文资讯平台贵州茅台出现47ai_中文资讯平台大单流入,今日净流出2.8亿元,公司股价也出现微幅下跌。其他净流出在2亿元以上的还有三安光电、正邦科技、中兴通讯。

  声明:数据宝所有资讯内容不构成投资建议,股市有风险,投资需谨慎。

新浪声明:新浪网登载此文出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其描述。文章内容仅供参考,不构成投资建议nichkhun推特_中文资讯平台。投资者据此操作,风险自担。

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责任编辑:陈志杰

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